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Hadoop 2.4 Installing on Ubuntu 14.04 (Single-Node Cluster) - 2015



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Hadoop on 64 bit Ubuntu 14.04

In this chapter, we'll install a single-node Hadoop cluster backed by the Hadoop Distributed File System on Ubuntu.





Installing Java

Hadoop framework is written in Java!!

# Update the source list
$ sudo apt-get update

# The OpenJDK project is the default version of Java 
# that is provided from a supported Ubuntu repository.
$ sudo apt-get install default-jdk

$ java -version
java version "1.7.0_55"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (IcedTea 2.4.7) (7u55-2.4.7-1ubuntu1)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.51-b03, mixed mode)




Adding a dedicated Hadoop user
k@k:~$ sudo addgroup hadoop
Adding group `hadoop' (GID 1002) ...
Done.

k@k:~$ sudo adduser --ingroup hadoop hduser
Adding user `hduser' ...
Adding new user `hduser' (1002) with group `hadoop' ...
Creating home directory `/home/hduser' ...
Copying files from `/etc/skel' ...
Enter new UNIX password: 
Retype new UNIX password: 
passwd: password updated successfully
Changing the user information for hduser
Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default
	Full Name []: 
	Room Number []: 
	Work Phone []: 
	Home Phone []: 
	Other []: 
Is the information correct? [Y/n] Y




Installing SSH

ssh has 2 main components :

  1. ssh : The command we use to connect to remote machines - the client.
  2. sshd : The daemon that is running on the server and allows clients to connect to the server.

The ssh is pre-enabled on Linux, but in order to start sshd daemon, we need to install ssh first. Use this command to do that :

$ sudo apt-get install ssh

This will install ssh on our machine. If we get something similar to the following, we can think it is setup properly:

$ which ssh
/usr/bin/ssh

$ which sshd
/usr/sbin/sshd




Create and Setup SSH Certificates

Hadoop requires SSH access to manage its nodes, i.e. remote machines plus our local machine. For our single-node setup of Hadoop, we therefore need to configure SSH access to localhost.

So, we need to have SSH up and running on our machine and configured it to allow SSH public key authentication.

Hadoop uses SSH (to access its nodes) which would normally require the user to enter a password. However, this requirement can be eliminated by creating and setting up SSH certificates using the following commands. If asked for a filename just leave it blank and press the enter key to continue.

k@k:~$ su hduser
Password: 
hduser@k:/home/k$ ssh-keygen -t rsa -P ""
Generating public/private rsa key pair.
Enter file in which to save the key (/home/hduser/.ssh/id_rsa): 
Created directory '/home/hduser/.ssh'.
Your identification has been saved in /home/hduser/.ssh/id_rsa.
Your public key has been saved in /home/hduser/.ssh/id_rsa.pub.
The key fingerprint is:
5a:48:c1:c2:18:f7:93:b5:7e:d2:b8:4b:c3:19:7b:bf hduser@k
The key's randomart image is:
+--[ RSA 2048]----+
|  .+... .        |
|  ..o..+ .       |
|     .= .        |
|     . + o       |
|      . S o      |
|       + B       |
|      . B .      |
|       . + .     |
|        .   E.   |
+-----------------+

hduser@k:/home/k$ cat $HOME/.ssh/id_rsa.pub >> $HOME/.ssh/authorized_keys

The second command adds the newly created key to the list of authorized keys so that Hadoop can use ssh without prompting for a password.

We can check if ssh works:

hduser@k:/home/k$ ssh localhost
The authenticity of host 'localhost (127.0.0.1)' can't be established.
ECDSA key fingerprint is e1:8b:a0:a5:75:ef:f4:b4:5e:a9:ed:be:64:be:5c:2f.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added 'localhost' (ECDSA) to the list of known hosts.
Welcome to Ubuntu 14.04 LTS (GNU/Linux 3.13.0-27-generic x86_64)

 * Documentation:  https://help.ubuntu.com/


The programs included with the Ubuntu system are free software;
the exact distribution terms for each program are described in the
individual files in /usr/share/doc/*/copyright.

Ubuntu comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY, to the extent permitted by
applicable law.




Install Hadoop
$ wget http://mirrors.sonic.net/apache/hadoop/common/hadoop-2.4.1/hadoop-2.4.1.tar.gz
$ tar xvzf hadoop-2.4.1.tar.gz

We want to move the Hadoop installation to the /usr/local/hadoop directory using the following command:

$ sudo mv hadoop-2.4.1 /usr/local/hadoop 
$ sudo chown -R hduser:hadoop hadoop
$ pwd
/usr/local/hadoop
$ ls
bin  etc  include  lib  libexec  LICENSE.txt  NOTICE.txt  README.txt  sbin  share




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Setup Configuration Files

The following files will have to be modified to complete the Hadoop setup:

  1. ~/.bashrc
  2. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hadoop-env.sh
  3. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml
  4. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml.template
  5. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml

1. ~/.bashrc:

Before editing the .bashrc file in our home directory, we need to find the path where Java has been installed to set the JAVA_HOME environment variable using the following command:

$ update-alternatives --config java
There is only one alternative in link group java (providing /usr/bin/java): /usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64/jre/bin/java
Nothing to configure.

Now we can append the following to the end of ~/.bashrc

#HADOOP VARIABLES START
export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64
export HADOOP_INSTALL=/usr/local/hadoop
export PATH=$PATH:$HADOOP_INSTALL/bin
export PATH=$PATH:$HADOOP_INSTALL/sbin
export HADOOP_MAPRED_HOME=$HADOOP_INSTALL
export HADOOP_COMMON_HOME=$HADOOP_INSTALL
export HADOOP_HDFS_HOME=$HADOOP_INSTALL
export YARN_HOME=$HADOOP_INSTALL
export HADOOP_COMMON_LIB_NATIVE_DIR=$HADOOP_INSTALL/lib/native
export HADOOP_OPTS="-Djava.library.path=$HADOOP_INSTALL/lib"
#HADOOP VARIABLES END


2. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hadoop-env.sh

We need to set JAVA_HOME by modifying hadoop-env.sh file

export JAVA_HOME=/usr/lib/jvm/java-7-openjdk-amd64

Adding the above statement in the hadoop-env.sh file ensures that the value of JAVA_HOME variable will be available to Hadoop whenever it is started up.



3. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml:

The /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/core-site.xml file contains configuration properties that Hadoop uses when starting up. This file can be used to override the default settings that Hadoop starts with.

$ sudo mkdir -p /app/hadoop/tmp
$ sudo chown hduser:hadoop /app/hadoop/tmp

Open the file and enter the following in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

<configuration>
 <property>
  <name>hadoop.tmp.dir</name>
  <value>/app/hadoop/tmp</value>
  <description>A base for other temporary directories.</description>
 </property>

 <property>
  <name>fs.default.name</name>
  <value>hdfs://localhost:54310</value>
  <description>The name of the default file system.  A URI whose
  scheme and authority determine the FileSystem implementation.  The
  uri's scheme determines the config property (fs.SCHEME.impl) naming
  the FileSystem implementation class.  The uri's authority is used to
  determine the host, port, etc. for a filesystem.</description>
 </property>
</configuration>


4. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml

By default, the /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/ folder contains the /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml.template file which has to be renamed/copied with the name mapred-site.xml:

$ cp /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml.template /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/mapred-site.xml

The mapred-site.xml file is used to specify which framework is being used for MapReduce. We need to enter the following content in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

<configuration>
 <property>
  <name>mapred.job.tracker</name>
  <value>localhost:54311</value>
  <description>The host and port that the MapReduce job tracker runs
  at.  If "local", then jobs are run in-process as a single map
  and reduce task.
  </description>
 </property>
</configuration>


5. /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml

The /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop/hdfs-site.xml file needs to be configured for each host in the cluster that is being used. It is used to specify the directories which will be used as the namenode and the datanode on that host.

Before editing this file, we need to create two directories which will contain the namenode and the datanode for this Hadoop installation. This can be done using the following commands:

$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/namenode
$ sudo mkdir -p /usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/datanode
$ sudo chown -R hduser:hadoop /usr/local/hadoop_store

Open the file and enter the following content in between the <configuration></configuration> tag:

<configuration>
 <property>
  <name>dfs.replication</name>
  <value>1</value>
  <description>Default block replication.
  The actual number of replications can be specified when the file is created.
  The default is used if replication is not specified in create time.
  </description>
 </property>
 <property>
   <name>dfs.namenode.name.dir</name>
   <value>file:///usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/namenode</value>
 </property>
 <property>
   <name>dfs.datanode.data.dir</name>
   <value>file:///usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/datanode</value>
 </property>
</configuration>




Format the New Hadoop Filesystem

Now, the Hadoop filesystem needs to be formatted so that we can start to use it. The format command should be issued with write permission since it creates current directory under /usr/local/hadoop_store/hdfs/namenode folder:

hduser@k:~$ hadoop namenode -format
DEPRECATED: Use of this script to execute hdfs command is deprecated.
Instead use the hdfs command for it.

14/07/13 22:13:05 INFO namenode.NameNode: STARTUP_MSG: 
/************************************************************
STARTUP_MSG: Starting NameNode
STARTUP_MSG:   host = k/127.0.1.1
STARTUP_MSG:   args = [-format]
STARTUP_MSG:   version = 2.4.1
STARTUP_MSG:   classpath = /usr/local/hadoop/etc/hadoop:/usr/local/hadoop/share/hadoop/common/lib/netty-3.6.2.Final.jar:/usr/local/hadoop
...
common-2.4.1.jar:/usr/local/hadoop/share/hadoop/mapreduce/hadoop-mapreduce-client-app-2.4.1.jar:/contrib/capacity-scheduler/*.jar:/contrib/capacity-scheduler/*.jar
STARTUP_MSG:   build = http://svn.apache.org/repos/asf/hadoop/common -r 1604318; compiled by 'jenkins' on 2014-06-21T05:43Z
STARTUP_MSG:   java = 1.7.0_55
************************************************************/
14/07/13 22:13:05 INFO namenode.NameNode: registered UNIX signal handlers for [TERM, HUP, INT]
14/07/13 22:13:05 INFO namenode.NameNode: createNameNode [-format]
14/07/13 22:13:07 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
Formatting using clusterid: CID-cea08f18-e94e-49c7-b380-9c55ea473122
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: fsLock is fair:true
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.HostFileManager: read includes:
HostSet(
)
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.HostFileManager: read excludes:
HostSet(
)
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.DatanodeManager: dfs.block.invalidate.limit=1000
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.DatanodeManager: dfs.namenode.datanode.registration.ip-hostname-check=true
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map BlocksMap
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO util.GSet: VM type       = 64-bit
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO util.GSet: 2.0% max memory 889 MB = 17.8 MB
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^21 = 2097152 entries
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: dfs.block.access.token.enable=false
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: defaultReplication         = 1
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: maxReplication             = 512
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: minReplication             = 1
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: maxReplicationStreams      = 2
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: shouldCheckForEnoughRacks  = false
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: replicationRecheckInterval = 3000
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: encryptDataTransfer        = false
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO blockmanagement.BlockManager: maxNumBlocksToLog          = 1000
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: fsOwner             = hduser (auth:SIMPLE)
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: supergroup          = supergroup
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: isPermissionEnabled = true
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: HA Enabled: false
14/07/13 22:13:08 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Append Enabled: true
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map INodeMap
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: VM type       = 64-bit
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: 1.0% max memory 889 MB = 8.9 MB
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^20 = 1048576 entries
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.NameNode: Caching file names occuring more than 10 times
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map cachedBlocks
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: VM type       = 64-bit
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: 0.25% max memory 889 MB = 2.2 MB
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^18 = 262144 entries
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: dfs.namenode.safemode.threshold-pct = 0.9990000128746033
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: dfs.namenode.safemode.min.datanodes = 0
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: dfs.namenode.safemode.extension     = 30000
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Retry cache on namenode is enabled
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.FSNamesystem: Retry cache will use 0.03 of total heap and retry cache entry expiry time is 600000 millis
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: Computing capacity for map NameNodeRetryCache
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: VM type       = 64-bit
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: 0.029999999329447746% max memory 889 MB = 273.1 KB
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO util.GSet: capacity      = 2^15 = 32768 entries
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.AclConfigFlag: ACLs enabled? false
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO namenode.FSImage: Allocated new BlockPoolId: BP-158368351-127.0.1.1-1405314789318
14/07/13 22:13:09 INFO common.Storage: Storage directory /app/hadoop/tmp/dfs/name has been successfully formatted.
14/07/13 22:13:10 INFO namenode.NNStorageRetentionManager: Going to retain 1 images with txid >= 0
14/07/13 22:13:10 INFO util.ExitUtil: Exiting with status 0
14/07/13 22:13:10 INFO namenode.NameNode: SHUTDOWN_MSG: 
/************************************************************
SHUTDOWN_MSG: Shutting down NameNode at k/127.0.1.1
************************************************************/

Everything seems to be working except:

...WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable

The reason we have that warning is the native Hadoop library $HADOOP_HOME/lib/native/libhadoop.so.1.0.0 was actually compiled on 32 bit while my machine is 64bit. Because it's just a warning, and won't impact Hadoop's functionalities, we can move on.


Note that hadoop namenode -format command should be executed once before we start using Hadoop. If this command is executed again after Hadoop has been used, it'll destroy all the data on the Hadoop file system.





Starting Hadoop

Now it's time to start the newly installed single node cluster. We can use start-all.sh or (start-dfs.sh and start-yarn.sh)

hduser@k:/home/k$ start-all.sh
This script is Deprecated. Instead use start-dfs.sh and start-yarn.sh
14/07/13 23:36:59 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
Starting namenodes on [localhost]
localhost: starting namenode, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/logs/hadoop-hduser-namenode-k.out
localhost: starting datanode, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/logs/hadoop-hduser-datanode-k.out
Starting secondary namenodes [0.0.0.0]
0.0.0.0: starting secondarynamenode, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/logs/hadoop-hduser-secondarynamenode-k.out
14/07/13 23:37:40 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
starting yarn daemons
starting resourcemanager, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/logs/yarn-hduser-resourcemanager-k.out
localhost: starting nodemanager, logging to /usr/local/hadoop/logs/yarn-hduser-nodemanager-k.out

We can check if it's really up and running:

hduser@k:/home/k$ jps
6129 Jps
5484 NameNode
5811 SecondaryNameNode
5969 ResourceManager
6094 NodeManager
5610 DataNode

The output means that we now have a functional instance of Hadoop running on our VPS (Virtual private server).

Another way to check is using netstat:

hduser@k:/home/k$ netstat -plten | grep java
(Not all processes could be identified, non-owned process info
 will not be shown, you would have to be root to see it all.)
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8033            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       159850      5969/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:50020           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       148236      5610/java       
tcp        0      0 127.0.0.1:54310         0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       148539      5484/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8040            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       159245      6094/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8042            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       158297      6094/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:50090           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       150200      5811/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:50070           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       143035      5484/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8088            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       159251      5969/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:42586           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       158283      6094/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:50010           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       146772      5610/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:50075           0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       147223      5610/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8030            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       159215      5969/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8031            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       154756      5969/java       
tcp        0      0 0.0.0.0:8032            0.0.0.0:*               LISTEN      1002       159228      5969/java       




Stopping Hadoop
$ pwd
/usr/local/hadoop/sbin

$ ls
distribute-exclude.sh  httpfs.sh                start-all.sh         start-yarn.cmd    stop-dfs.cmd        yarn-daemon.sh
hadoop-daemon.sh       mr-jobhistory-daemon.sh  start-balancer.sh    start-yarn.sh     stop-dfs.sh         yarn-daemons.sh
hadoop-daemons.sh      refresh-namenodes.sh     start-dfs.cmd        stop-all.cmd      stop-secure-dns.sh
hdfs-config.cmd        slaves.sh                start-dfs.sh         stop-all.sh       stop-yarn.cmd
hdfs-config.sh         start-all.cmd            start-secure-dns.sh  stop-balancer.sh  stop-yarn.sh

We run stop-all.sh or (stop-dfs.sh and stop-yarn.sh) to stop all the daemons running on our machine:

$ /usr/local/hadoop/sbin/stop-all.sh
This script is Deprecated. Instead use stop-dfs.sh and stop-yarn.sh
14/07/13 20:55:59 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
Stopping namenodes on [localhost]
localhost: no namenode to stop
localhost: stopping datanode
Stopping secondary namenodes [0.0.0.0]
0.0.0.0: stopping secondarynamenode
14/07/13 20:56:24 WARN util.NativeCodeLoader: Unable to load native-hadoop library for your platform... using builtin-java classes where applicable
stopping yarn daemons
stopping resourcemanager
localhost: stopping nodemanager
no proxyserver to stop




Hadoop Web Interfaces

http://localhost:50070/ - web UI of the NameNode daemon

50070.png



SecondaryNameNode

SecondaryNameNode.png



DataNode

DataNode.png

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Using Hadoop

If we have an application that is set up to use Hadoop, we can fire that up and start using it with our Hadoop installation!

  • Hadoop - Running MapReduce Job
















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